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1. Indented writing means:

  1. Invisible writing
  2. Coding
  3. Marginal writing
  4. Sub-surface impressions

Answer: (4) Sub-surface impressions

2. Obliteration in writing is:

  1. Addition of Words
  2. Obscuring by superimposition
  3. Secret writing
  4. None of the above

Answer: (2) Obscuring by superimposition

3. Obliterations can be defined as

  1. Removing writing with mechanical means
  2. Removing writing with chemical means
  3. Covering the writing with colored matter
  4. None of the above

Answer: (3) Covering the writing with colored matter

4. Indentation of writing by ink can be deciphered by:

  1. ESDA
  2. UV Light
  3.  VSC-1
  4. All of the above

Answer: (1) ESDA

Explanation: An electrostatic detection device is a non-destructive technique for revealing the indentations or impressions in paper.

5. Erasure of writing using rubber is called:

  1. Mechanical erasure
  2. Soft erasure
  3. Hand erasure
  4. Chemical erasure

Answer: (1) Mechanical erasure

Explanation: There are two types of erasure i.e. chemical erasure and physical erasure (mechanical)
-> Chemical Erasures: Chemicals that make ink invisible such as oxalic acid, sodium hypochlorite, etc.
-> Mechanical Erasures: Physical abrasion of the written material using any sharp instrument such as a knife, blade, etc.

6. Assertion (A): The chemically erased ink writings can be restored.

Reason (R): Because the reaction of chemical erasure and ink is reversible.

  1. (A) is true, but (R) is false
  2. (A) is false, but (R) is true
  3. Both (A) and (R) are true
  4. Both (A) and (R) are false

Answer: (1) (A) is true, but (R) is false

Correct Reason: Chemically erased writing can be restored by treating reagents such as thiocyanic acid and yellow ammonium sulfide. However, the application of chemical erasure permanently removes some part of the ink (or makes it invisible) which can’t be restored back to the original one but only can be deciphered.

7. Chemically erased writing can be restored by treatment with:

  1. Polarized light
  2. Reflected light
  3. Thiocyanic acid
  4. Hydrochloric acid

Answer: (3) Thiocyanic acid

Explanation:
-> Chemically erased writing can be restored by treating reagents such as thiocyanic acid.
-> However, the colors developed disappeared after a few days, so immediate photographs should be taken. Moreover, after the writing disappeared, they could be retreated to redevelop the writing.

8. Chemically erased writing can be restored by the action of:

(i) Reflected light (ii) Ammonium polysulfide solution (iii) Thiocyanic Acid (iv) UV Light

  1. (ii) and (iii) are correct
  2. (i) and (ii) are correct
  3. (ii) and (iv) are correct
  4. (i) and (iv) are correct

Answer: (1) (ii) and (iii) are correct

Explanation: There are generally two chemical etching methods for the restoration of chemical erased writing which are Ammonium polysulfide solution (yellow ammonium sulfide) and Thiocyanic Acid.

9. VSC is an instrument used for the examination of:

(i) Fingerprint (ii) Tool marks (iii) Erased writing (iv) Secret writing

  1. (i) and (iii)
  2. (iii) and (iv)
  3. (ii) and (iv)
  4. (i) and (ii)

Answer: (2) Both Erased Writing and Secret Writing

Explanation: Video Spectral Comparator (VSC) is a special lighting tool for document examination that uses a wide range of wavelengths spectrum.

10. The writing on a charred document can be deciphered with:

  1. Reflected light
  2. Transmitted light
  3. Under UV radiation
  4. I.R. photography

Answer: (4) I.R. photography

Explanation: Under IR radiation, the written content on charred documents can easily be seen.
Reference: Charred Documents by NICFS-LNJN Book

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