Note: You can jump to the main page of Forensic Impression Marks MCQs to check the list of all questions with explanations. MCQ included in this section are fingerprints, shoe prints, footmarks, tire, and skid marks. This section is deliberately included in this section as per the NTA UGC NET/JRF Syllabus.

1. A biometric trait must satisfy which of the following properties?

  1. Universality
  2. Uniqueness
  3. Permanency
  4. All of the above

Answer: (4) All of the above

Explanation: There are a total of seven basic requirements that a good biometric trait should have. These are:
-> Universality: every individual should possess the trait
-> Uniqueness: the ability of the trait to sufficiently differentiate between any two persons
-> Persistence: Sufficiently invariant over a period of time
-> Collectability: Easy to collect, obtained and measurable
-> Performance: high recognition, accuracy, and speed
-> Acceptability: wide public acceptance
-> Circumvention: Imitating the characteristic trait should be difficult.

2. Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is used for which of the following?

  1. To determine the age of fingerprints
  2. To track the latent fingerprint evidence
  3. To store and retrieve the fingerprint records with the help of a computer system
  4. To develop the latent fingerprints with the help of a computer system

Answer: (3) To store and retrieve the fingerprint records with the help of a computer system

3. The full form of NFF which is related to AFIS is

  1. Numerical fingerprint file
  2. National fingerprint facility
  3. National fingerprint Federation
  4. National fingerprint file

Answer: (4) National fingerprint file

Explanation: National Fingerprint File/Interstate Identification Index (NFF/III) is a special addon to AFIS that is responsible for the fast and accurate identification of a person with prior out-of-State criminal history records.

4. In which year was the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) developed?

  1. 1960s
  2. 1980s
  3. 1990s
  4. 1950s

Answer: (2) 1980s

-> In 1963, the FBI reinitiated its research into the complete automation of its criminal known-print repository.
-> In 1972, Cornell laboratories’ prototype, known as AIDS (Automated Identification System), was installed in the Identification Division in Washington, DC.
-> 3rd and final phase of the automated system was introduced which is called Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) developed in the early 1980s.
-> The first automatic fingerprint recognition system was installed at Scotland Yard in 1984.
-> Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), is a computerized system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 1999.

5. IAFIS first became operational in which of the following years?

  1. 1998
  2. 2003
  3. 2001
  4. 1999

Answer: (4) 1999

Explanation: Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), is a computerized system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

6. Which of the following is not related to the process of computer scanning and digitization of fingerprints?

  1. Indexing
  2. Restriction
  3. Feature extraction
  4. Segmentation

Answer: (2) Restriction

7. “Viola and Jones” algorithm is useful for:

  1. Face recognition
  2. Iris recognition
  3. Face detection
  4. Iris detection

Answer: (3) Face detection

-> “Viola and Jones” algorithm is named after its creators Paul Viola and Michael Jones. in 2001 that was used for facial detection
-> It has two stages: (1) training with facial and non-facial images, and (2) detection.

8. Which of the following techniques is used for facial recognition?

  1. Video-superimposition
  2. Video comparator
  3. NGS
  4. ESDA

Answer: (1) Video-superimposition

-> Video Comparator: Video Spectral Comparator is used for the analysis of inks, secret writings, hidden features, and other alterations using imaging spectrums.
-> Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is used to determine the order of nucleotides in entire genomes or targeted regions of DNA or RNA.
-> ESDA (Electrostatic Detection Apparatus): to reveal indentations or impressions on paper.

9. How many phases are present in the “Enhanced Integrated Digital Investigation Process” Model invented by Baryamureeba and Tushabe in 2004?

  1. 47
  2. 15
  3. 39
  4. 21

Answer: (4) 21

Explanation: In 2004, four models were developed for Systemic Digital Forensic Investigation. These are listed as:
(i) Enhanced Integrated Digital Investigation Process: invented by Baryamureeba and Tushabe (21 phases).
(ii) Extended Model of Cybercrime Investigation: presented by Séamus Ó Ciardhuáin (13 activities).
(iii) Objective-based Framework: invented by Beebe and Clark (6 phases Hierarchical).
(iv) Event-based Digital Forensic Investigation Framework: invented by Carrier and Spafford (16 phases).
-> Systemic Digital Forensic Investigation model (SRDIFM): invented in 2011 by A. Agarwal, M. Gupta, S. Gupta, and S. C. Gupta.
Reference: Mastering Mobile Forensics By Soufiane Tahiri. Pg 12.

10. The correct sequence of processes in the enrollment phase of iris biometric recognition is

(A) Irish image acquisition
(B) Image enhancement
(C) Localization and normalization
(D) Feature extraction
(E) Enrollment in database

Choose the correct answer from the option given below

  1. (A), (B), (C), (D), (E)
  2. (A), (E), (B), (C), (D)
  3. (E), (A), (B), (C), (D)
  4. (A), (C), (B), (D), (E)

Answer: (4) (A), (C), (B), (D), (E)

Explanation: Four modules in Iris recognition system:
-> First module is capturing an iris image
-> Second module is preprocessing which has three steps: localization and normalization, and enhancement.
-> Thrid module for feature extraction
-> Fourth module for matching and classification to the database.
Sequence of steps in IRIS recognition system: Eye image-> pre-processing-> iris segmentation/localization-> iris normalization-> Feature extraction-> Feature selection-> Matching/Classification with/to database-> Decision. [Researchgate]

11. In a finger print biometric system, the correct sequence of processes for matching of two fingerprints is

(A) Alignment
(B) Pairing
(C) Score Generation
(D) Fingerprint matching
(E) Performance evaluation

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (A), (B), (C), (D), (E)
  2. (A), (C), (B), (D), (E)
  3. (B), (A), (C), (D), (E)
  4. (B), (C), (A), (D), (E)

Answer: (1) (A), (B), (C), (D), (E)

Explanation: Steps involved in the fingerprint Recognition System
-> Fingerprint Acquisition: sensing techniques and image quality
-> Feature Extraction: Ridge and minutiae extraction
-> Matching:
● Alignment
● Pairing minutiae
● Match score generation
● Fingerprint matching
● Fingerprint individuality
● Performance evaluation

12. Which of the following is an example of a behavioral biometric

  1. Thermogram
  2. Skin reflectance
  3. Retina
  4. Lip motion

Answer: (4) Lip motion

-> Behavioural biometric is based on uniquely identifying and measurable patterns in human activities. Examples: signature, handwriting, gait pattern, voice
-> Physical biometrics based on physiological features of the human body that can serve as identification markers. Example face shape, fingerprint, DNA, iris, retina, veins distribution of palms, etc.

13. The rate of compression for a fingerprint as per ANSI‐NIST guidelines in the case of WSQ is:

  1. 10:1
  2. 20:1
  3. 30:1
  4. 40:1

Answer: (2) 20:1

Explanation: To decrease the data rate (bandwidth) of telecommunication systems for fingerprint systems, the FBI elected a technique called Wavelet Scalar Quantization (WSQ) to compress fingerprint images.
-> The transmission ten digits image is compressed with WSQ at 20:1 and latent images remain uncompressed.
-> Currently, there are no agencies reporting the use of compression with latent images.

14. The CORRECT sequence of the process in a biometric recognition system is:

A. Acquisition
B. Feature selection
C. Feature extraction
D. Identification / Verification
E. Performance evaluation

Choose the correct answer from the options given below

  1. A, C, B, D, E
  2. A, B, C, D, E
  3. A, B, D, C, E
  4. A, D, B, C, E

Answer: (1) A, C, B, D, E

Explanation: Feature extraction is first performed followed by feature selection. The goal of this step is to find a preferably small number of features that are particularly distinguishing or informative for the classification process.

15. Which of the following levels of AFIS can identify the pattern of the print and establish the location of delta and core?

  1. Level 2
  2. Level 3
  3. Level 4
  4. Level 1

Answer: (4) Level 1

-> Level 1 Characteristic: pattern type
-> Level 2 Characteristic: minutiae points
-> Level 3 Characteristic: pores and ridges contour
-> Level 4 Characteristic: Uses of other fields of science

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