Note: This section included MCQs related to General Forensic Science topics including crime scene investigation, laws, principles, and contributors to Forensic science.

1. In lie detection, graphs indicate the change in:

  1. Blood pressure
  2. Skin resistance
  3. Pulse rate
  4. All the above

Answer: (4) All the above

Explanation: This is based on the principle that if a person is lying there is a change (increase) in heart rate, higher blood pressure, and increased perspiration (galvanic skin response).

2. The name ‘Keeler’ is associated with

  1. Chromatograph
  2. Polygraph
  3. Spectrograph
  4. Monograph

Answer: (2) Polygraph

Explanation: Leonarde Keeler was the co-inventor of the polygraph. A polygraph is also called to be the ‘lie detector’ or psychophysiological detection of deception (PDD) whose principle is based on several physiological variables, such as blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and electrodermal reaction.

3. Assertion (A): While taking the photograph of the dead body at the scene of offense a scale should be put by the side of the body.

Reason (R): It would help to calculate the total height of the person.

  1. Both (A) and (R) are correct
  2. (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect
  3. Both (A) and (R) are incorrect
  4. (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct

Answer: (2) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect

Correct Reason: Sscaleis used to calculate the size of the relative features with respect to the surrounding of the cadaver body. While photography is done to ensure that identification can be made using the photograph.

4. Lie detector measures, the following parameters of an individual:

  1. Pulse rate
  2. Blood Pressure
  3. Galvanic skin Resistance
  4. All of the above

Answer: (4) All of the above

5. Which of the following observations are taken into consideration in the lie detection instrument test?

  1. Blood pressure, pulse rate, dilation of pupils, inflammation of the skin
  2. Respiration, blood pressure, pulse rate, galvanic skin response
  3. Galvanic skin response, dilated pupils, respiration, blood pressure
  4. Pulse rate, respiration, dilated pupils, blood pressure

Answer: (2) Respiration, blood pressure, pulse rate, galvanic skin response

6. In which of the following tests are cardio-cuffs or sensitive electrodes attached to the subject to measure physiological responses such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, change in sweat gland activity and blood flow?

  1. Brain mapping
  2. Narco-analysis
  3. ESDA
  4. Polygraph test

Answer: (4) Polygraph test

7. Participation and presence of a medical doctor is mandatory in which of the following?

  1. Brain mapping
  2. Narcoanalysis
  3. DNA analysis
  4. Anthropometry

Answer: (2) Narcoanalysis

Explanation: In narcoanalysis, continuous monitoring of the person is required. Moreover, a wrong dose of the narcotic substances may lead to a state of coma or even death of the person.

8. Which of the following is associated with brain mapping?

  1. BAL
  2. EDTA
  3. MDOPA
  4. MERMER

Answer: (4) MERMER

Explanation:
-> P300: Brain responses emitted by the human brain approximately 300 milliseconds after it is presented with a significant stimulus.
-> MERMER: Memory and Encoding Related Multifaceted Electroencephalographic Response (MERMER).
-> Farwell’s brain fingerprinting employs the P300 brain response to determine whether or not the brains recognised the given information.
-> He later uses MERMER (which included P300) to provide a higher level of accuracy than P300.

9. P- waves are associated with which of the following?

  1. Brain fingerprinting
  2. Narcoanalysis
  3. Plethysmograph
  4. Polygraph

Answer: (1) Brain fingerprinting

Explanation: Brain fingerprinting detects concealed information stored in the brain by measuring brainwave responses that are derived from the EEG data at different sites. The main component of brain fingerprinting MERMER is the P300 brainwave whose evoked response is a potential indicator of recognition.

10. Which of the following is correctly matched?

Test of Lie detectionAssociated fact
(a) Brain mapping(i) Psychophysiological detection of deception
(b) Truth serum(ii) Recovery of forgotten memories
(c) Lie detector(iii) 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate
(d) Hypnosis(iv) Paracetamol
 (v) Invented by Lawrence Farwell
 (a)(b)(c)(d)
1.(i)(iii)(v)(ii)
2.(v)(iii)(i)(ii)
3.(i)(v)(iv)(iii)
4.(ii)(iv)(v)(i)

Answer: (2) (v), (iii), (i), (ii)

Explanation: -> Common Truth Serums: Thiopentone sodium (sodium pentothal) and sodium amytal (amobarbital)
-> Uncommon Truth Serum: Scopolamine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, midazolam, and flunitrazepam.

11. Assertion (A): Narcoanalysis uses sedatives and hypnotics.

Reason (R): Person lies using his imagination.

  1. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  2. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
  3. (A) is true, but (R) is false
  4. (A) is false, but (R) is true

Answer: (2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Correct Reason: In in influence of sedatives and hypnotics, a person is made to induce in a semiconscious state (narcosis), and his capacity of inventing lying is diminished.
-> Most common drug is Sodium amytal. It depresses the CNS and is used as a sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsive, and for narcoanalysis.

12. Which drug is used in carrying out ‘nacro analysis’?

  1. Sodium narcol
  2. Sodium amylate
  3. Sodium pentothal
  4. Amphetamine

Answer: (3) Sodium pentothal

Explanation:
-> Four Common drugs for Narco analysis are:
(i) Scopolamine hydrobromide: 0.5 mg subcutaneously, followed by 0.25 mg every 25 minutes. Usually, 3 to 6 injections are required to prepare the suspect for questioning.
(ii) Sodium Amytal or Sodium pentothal: 0.25 to 0.5 gm in 2.5% to 5% solution slowly, not to exceed 1 ml/minute
-> Other names for Sodium pentothal are Sodium thiopental, and truth serum.
(iii) Sodium Seconal: 0.5 mg subcutaneously, followed by morphine sulphate 15 mg and scopolamine hydrobromide 0.5 mg after 45 minutes, will prepare the subject for questioning after next 45 minutes.
Reference: Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Theory, Oral & Practical by Rabindra Nath Karmakar

13. Which of the following physiological parameters is not passed in polygraph testing?

  1. Blood Pressure
  2. Lung air volume
  3. Pulse Rate
  4. Skin conductivity

Answer: (2) Lung air volume

Explanation: Physiological parameters in polygraph testing are:
-> Blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and  electro-dermal reaction
-> Electro-dermal reaction is also called galvanic skin response  (GSR), electrodermal response (EDR), or skin conductance response  (SCR).

14. P 300 is generated during the random presentation of a different stimulus along with the frequently repeated presentation of the same stimuli in the case of

  1. Brain fingerprinting
  2. Lie detection
  3. DNA fingerprinting
  4. Nacro Analysis

Answer: (1) Brain fingerprinting

Explanation: Brain fingerprinting (BF) detects concealed information stored in the brain by measuring brainwaves.
-> In P300, ‘P’ refers to the response being electrically positive (P) and has a latency of at least 300 ms (300).

15. Which of these psychological tests are helpful in such medico-legal situations?

(a) Polygraph
(b) Graphology
(c) Voice analysis
(d) Nacro analysis

Choose the correct option

  1. (a) and (c)
  2. (b) and (d)
  3. (a) and (d)
  4. (a) and (b)

Answer: (3) (a) and (d)

16. A Polygraph test is used for the detection of:

  1. Psychosomatic changes of body
  2. Pharmacological effects on body
  3. Orthopedic changes of body
  4. Radiological effects on body

Answer: (1) Psychosomatic changes of body

Explanation: Psychosomatic changes are related to emotional stress and well-being.

17. Which of the following drugs are used in Narco-analysis?

A. Sodium Amytal
B. Sodium Pentothal
C. Scopolamine Hydrobromide
D. Atropine Sulphate

Choose the Correct answer from the options given below:

  1. A, B, and D only
  2. A, B, and C only
  3. B, C, and D only
  4. A, C, and D only

Answer: (2) A, B, and C only

Explanation:
-> Four Common drugs for Narco analysis are:
(i) Scopolamine hydrobromide: 0.5 mg subcutaneously, followed by 0.25 mg every 25 minutes. Usually, 3 to 6 injections are required to prepare the suspect for questioning.
(ii) Sodium Amytal or Sodium pentothal: 0.25 to 0.5 gm in 2.5% to 5% solution slowly, not to exceed 1 ml/minute
-> Other names for Sodium pentothal are Sodium thiopental, and truth serum.
(iii) Sodium Seconal: 0.5 mg subcutaneously, followed by morphine sulphate 15 mg and scopolamine hydrobromide 0.5 mg after 45 minutes, will prepare the subject for questioning after next 45 minutes.
Reference: Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Theory, Oral & Practical by Rabindra Nath Karmakar

18. Which of the following is a tool that reads electrical activity in the brain with electrodes that are placed on the subject’s scalp in brain mapping?

  1. Computer axial tomography (CAT)
  2. Electroencephalography (EEG)
  3. Positron emission tomography (PET) 
  4. Functional MRI (fMRI)

Answer (2): Electroencephalography (EEG)

Explanation:
-> Computer axial tomography (CAT): 3d image of the internal organ using X-ray.
-> Positron emission tomography (PET): a type of nuclear medicine procedure to measure the metabolic activity of cells in body tissues.
-> Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI): measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. It doesn’t have an electrode-based system.

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