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Level 1 features
- Pattern type – The overall pattern of the fingerprint, such as arches, loops, and whorls.
- Core – The approximate center of the fingerprint pattern.
- Delta – The triangular region found in loop and whorl patterns.
Level 2 features
- Ridge endings – The point where a ridge terminates.
- Bifurcations – The point where a ridge splits into two separate ridges.
- Dots or islands – Isolated ridges that are shorter than the average ridge length.
- Enclosures or lakes – A single ridge that bifurcates and then re-joins, forming a loop-like shape.
- Short ridges – Ridges that are shorter than the average ridge length but longer than dots or islands.
- Ridge count – The number of ridges between the core and delta in loop patterns.
Level 3 features
- Sweat pores – The openings of sweat glands on the surface of the skin.
- Edges of the ridges – The contour of the ridge edges.
- Incipient ridges – Short, sometimes incomplete ridges that are thinner and less prominent than fully developed ridges.
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