**1. Which of the following measures the spread of data?**

- Mean
- Median and interquartile range
- First and third quartiles
- Standard deviation and variance

Answer

**Answer: (4) Standard deviation and variance**

**2. The middle value in a set of observed values is:**

- Mode
- Range
- Median
- Mean

Answer and Explanation

**Answer: (3) Median**

**Explanation:**

-> Mode represents the value that appears most frequently in a data set.

-> Range is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a group interval.

-> Mean is the average or the most value in a collection of numbers.

**3. The simplest measurement of central tendency is:**

- Mean
- Median
- Mode
- Standard deviation

Answer and Explanation

**Answer: (1) Mean**

**Explanation:**

-> Mode represents the value that appears most frequently in a data set.

-> Range is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a group intervals.

-> Mean is the average or the most value in a collection of numbers.

**4. To identify the shape of univariate data, what type of graph would be the most useful?**

- Histogram
- Scatter plot
- Bar chart
- Pie chart

Answer and Explanation

**Answer: (1) Histogram**

**Explanation:****-> Bar graph:** shows the number in categories**-> Scatter plot:** to determine whether or not two variables have a relationship or correlation.**-> Pie chart:** compare parts of the data to the whole

**5. Sample surveys are types of**

- Secondary data
- Tertiary data
- Manipulated data
- Primary data

Answer and Explanation

**Answer: (4) Primary data**

**Explanation:****-> Primary data:** data collected by researchers directly from main sources. Eg: interviews, surveys, experiments, etc.**-> Secondary data:** data that is collected by someone other than the primary user. Eg: censuses, information collected by government departments, organizational records, etc.**-> Tertiary data:** based on a collection of primary and secondary sources. Eg: textbooks, manuals, encyclopedias, etc.

**6. The degree of freedom can be calculated using the formula**

- (n-2)
- (n+1)
- (n-1/2)
- (n-1)

Answer and Explanation

** Answer: (4) (n-1)**

**Explanation:** Degree of freedom is given by df= N-1; where n represents the sample size.