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1. Blood group typing is a part of the following:

  1. Forensic pathology
  2. Forensic serology
  3. Odontology
  4. Criminal investigation

Answer: (2) Forensic serology

Explanation: Analysis of blood, seminal stain, saliva, and other body fluids for any legal matters comes under forensic serology.

2. Antibodies are found in the blood

  1. Serum
  2. Plasma
  3. RBC
  4. WBC

Answer: (1) Serum

3. ABO blood grouping is based on

  1. Red cell enzyme
  2. Red cell antigen
  3. Plasma proteins
  4. HLA

Answer: (2) Red cell antigen

4. The approximate frequency of AB blood group in the population is:

  1. 5-10%
  2. 10-12.5%
  3. 15-20%
  4. 35-40%

Answer: (1) 5-10 %

Explanation: -> Average distribution of ABO grouping in India are A= 23.16%, B= 34.10%, O= 34.56%, and AB: 8.18%.
-> Average distribution of Rh+(D)= 94.13% and Rh-ve(D)= and 5.87%.
Source: 2020 Study Distribution of ABO and Rh (D) Blood groups in India

5. Antigen-Antibody reaction is called as:

  1. Clotting
  2. Agglutination
  3. Fermentation
  4. Condensation

Answer: (2) Agglutination

Explanation: Agglutination is the clumping of particles because of antigen and antibody reactions.

6. Which of the following specific antibodies are produced when human serum is injected into animals?

  1. Ig M
  2. Ig A
  3. Ig G
  4. Precipitins

Answer: (4) Precipitins

Explanation: Precipitins are produced with a visible precipitate when it reacts with the blood of the animal (its antigen).

7. The absorption elution method for bloodstains examination was first introduce by:

  1. Zeltsch
  2. Fiori
  3. Siracusa
  4. Coombs

Answer: (3) Siracusa

Explanation: In 1923, Vittorio Siracusa was the first who introduces the absorption elution method for bloodstain examination.
-> Absorption elution is the best method to determine blood group from stain.
Reference: Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by Anil Aggrawal. Ch- Blood and Bloodstain.

8. Fisher and Race theory attempts to explain the inheritance of

  1. ABO blood group
  2. HLA
  3. Rh blood group
  4. Secretor or non-secretor status

Answer: (3) Rh blood group

Explanation: Two major theories that try to explain the inheritance of the Rh blood group system.
-> Fisher and Race theory (gene complex theory): use letter symbol C/c, D/d, E/e to demonstrate 6 antigens in Rh blood through 3 gene alleles, located on 2 gene loci.
-> Wiener theory (multiple–allele theory), Proposed by American Dr. Alexander Wiener. At one Rh locus, one Rh gene occurs, but the gene has multiple alleles. Eg: one gene R1, produces one agglutinogen (antigen) Rh1 that is composed of three “factors”: rh’, Rh(o), and hr’ ‘.
Source: Molecular – genetic variance of RH blood group system….

9. Which of the following is not a red cell blood group system?

  1. Kell
  2. Duffy
  3. ABO
  4. HLA

Answer: (4) HLA

Explanation: -> Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) present in WBC.
-> Duffy is a blood grouping system for the classification of human blood based on the presence of glycoproteins known as Fy antigens.
-> Kell blood group was first described in 1945 which is based on the reaction of human red blood cell antigens.

10. Rh antigen in the blood is also known as:

  1. A antigen
  2. B antigen
  3. D antigen
  4. AB antigen

Answer: (3) D antigen

Explanation: Rhesus (Rh) is a type of protein that is present on the RBCs. There are two types of Rh factors:
-> If your blood has Rh protein, you’re Rh +ve.
-> If absent, you’re Rh -ve.

11. Absorption elution technique is used to detect

  1. Seminal fluid
  2. Fecal matter
  3. Saliva stain
  4. Blood grouping

Answer: (4) Blood grouping

Explanation: Absorption elution technique for the determination of blood groupings such as A, B, AB, or O of a dried sample of blood.

12. The incidence of blood groups in the Indian population is in the following sequence

  1. A, O, B, AB
  2. O, A, B, AB
  3. O, B, A, AB
  4. AB, O, B, A

Answer: (3) O, B, A, AB

Explanation: -> Average distribution of ABO grouping in India are A= 23·16%, B= 34·10%, O= 34·56%, and AB: 8·18%.
-> Average distribution of Rh+(D)= 94·13% and Rh-ve(D)= and 5·87%.
Source: 2020 Study Distribution of ABO and Rh (D) Blood groups in India

13. The blood grouping system was given by:

  1. Henry
  2. Burrard
  3. Landsteiner
  4. Curry

Answer: (3) Landsteiner

Explanation: In 1900, Karl Landsteiner invented the ABO Blood grouping system.

14. HLA is found in:

  1. RBC
  2. WBC
  3. Platelet
  4. Serum

Answer: (2) WBC

15. Match the following:

(a) Kell(i) Serum protein
(b) Acid phosphatase(ii) WBC
(c) Haptoglobin(iii) Red cell antigen
(d) HLA(iv) Red cell isoenzymes

Answer: (2) (iii), (iv), (i), (ii)

Explanation: -> Kell antigen is a group of antigens of RBCs that are used for the determination of blood type.
-> One type of Acid phosphatase is the Red Cell Acid Phosphatase (ACP1) isozymes (Source)-> Haptoglobin (abbreviated as Hp) is a colorless protein of the alpha-globulin fraction of human serum which is used to transport “freed” hemoglobin released from destroyed RBCs to the reticuloendothelial system.
-> HLA is a WBC antigen.

16. Which of these tests is used to check for the presence of antibodies in blood-stained material?

  1. Lattes Crust test
  2. Ring Precipitin test
  3. Takayama test
  4. Teichmann test

Answer: (1) Lattes Crust test

Lattes Crust test is a method of detection of blood group based on the presence of agglutinin (antibodies) in blood-stained. One common point to be noted here is, Lattes Crust test method is only applicable to ABO system. The procedure for this test is similar to other blood group test method i.e. testing for agglutination.

17. Which of these portions of teeth is not preferred for blood-grouping by absorption-elution technique?

  1. Dental pulp
  2. Denture
  3. Cementum
  4. Enamel

Answer: (4) Enamel

Explanation: In general, for blood grouping using absorption elution technique from teeth using calcified tissue such as dentine (bony tissue forming the bulk of a tooth, beneath the enamel).

18. Which of the following may be categorized as immunogens?

(a) Hapten S (b) Antigen A (c) Anti Rh (d) Antigen B

  1. (a), (c) and (d) are correct
  2. (a), (b) and (c) are correct
  3. (a), (b) and (d) are correct
  4. (b), (c) and (d) are correct

Answer: (3) (a), (b) and (d) are correct.

Explanation: -> Anti Rh means Anti-Rh antibodies
-> Rh (D) is the most immunogenic red cell antigen.

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