This post contains the first 25 questions from the 2022 NTA UGC NET/JRF Forensic Science Paper along with answer key and explanation that was held on 14 October 2022.

A Thankyou Note:
This question paper is made available through the efforts of Mr. Ritesh Tolani and Mr. Angesh Maurya who submit their copy to us. You can also submit any of your papers from here.

Attention Users: For systematic learning for the Previous Year’s NTA UGC NET/JRF Forensic Science question paper (both Paper 2 and 3), please refer to the Index Page of Forensic Science NTA UGC NET/JRF.

1. Which of the following are important characteristics for the examination of Infrared spectra of a drug?

(A) Shape of peak
(B) Position of peak
(C) Intensity of peak
(D) Tangent of peak

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (A) and (B) only
  2. (B) and (D) only
  3. (A), (B) and (D) only
  4. (A), (B) and (C) only

Answer: (4) (A), (B) and (C) only

Explanation: Useful data obtained from the IR spectrum are the peak position, intensities, and widths.
-> Peak Position: determined strictly by the molecules in the sample. If two spectra have the same peak, then two samples contained the same molecules.
-> Peak Intensities: used to distinguish between the spectra of different functional groups. Different vibrations of the different functional groups give rise to bands of different intensities. Another governing factor here is the concentration of molecules in the sample.
-> Peak Widths: different functional groups give rise to bands with different peak widths.
-> If the peak positions, intensity, and widths match perfectly, then two samples have the same molecules in the same concentration.

2. Which of the following are sub-divisions of semivowel in context of its manner of articulation?

(A) Glides
(B) Nasals
(C) Vocalic Nuclei
(D) Liquids

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (A) and (B) only
  2. (A) and (C) only
  3. (A) and (D) only
  4. (B) and (C) only

Answer: (3) (A) and (D) only

Explanation: The manner of articulation deals with airflow in the vocal tract.
-> Vowels are the most important and largest class of phonemes; air passes relatively freely (at a rate of 100-200 cc/s) through the pharynx and oral cavities. They have no constrictions narrow enough to cause frication noise (random noise caused by turbulent airflow).

-> Glides (also called semivowels) resemble vowels but have a very high tongue position which causes narrow vocal tract constriction barely wide enough to avoid frication.
-> Two common glides are:
(i) /y/ resemble the vowel /iy/, as in “yet”)
(ii) /w/ resemble/uw/, as in “wet”

-> Liquids also resemble vowels, except for use of part of the tongue as a major obstruction in the oral tack which causes it to deflect from a simple path.
-> Two common liquids are:
(i) liquid /l/ (also called a lateral) as in “pool”, the tongue tip is in contact with the alveolar ridge and causes a division of the airflow into two streams on both sides of the tongue.
(ii) liquid /r/ (also called rhotic) as in “car”, the tongue tip is pointing toward the alveolar ridge and usually curled back (retroflex).

Reference: -> Speech Enhancement Techniques for Digital Hearing Aids [book]
-> Major Phonemes in American English [Image]

3. As per section 375 of IPC, Sexual Assualt does not include

  1. Rape or attempted rape.
  2. Force sexual activity that does not result in penetration.
  3. Oral or anal intercourse.
  4. Sexual act with wife older than 16 years.

Answer: (4) Sexual act with wife older than 16 years.

Explanation: As per 375 IPC following are considered rape:
(i) Statutory rape: With or without her consent, when she is under 18 years of age.
-> Before the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 [CLAA, 2013], the age of consent was changed from 16 years to 18 years.
(i) Marital Rape: with or without his wife’s consent if she is >15 years.

Section 376 IPC deals with:
(i) S.376A IPC:
Punishment for causing death or resulting in a persistent vegetative state of the victim.
(ii) S.376B IPC: Sexual intercourse by husband upon his wife during separation.
(iii) S.376C IPC: Sexual intercourse by a person in authority.
(iv) S.376D IPC: Gang rape.
(v) S.376E IPC (newly added in CLLA, 2013): Punishment for repeat offenders.
Reference: Essential of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by Anil Aggrawal.

4. Depth of focus directly depends on which of the following?

(A) Colour of film
(B) Aperture
(C) Focal length of the lens
(D) Layers of film

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (A) and (B) only
  2. (A) and (C) only
  3. (B) and (C) only
  4. (A) and (D) only

Answer: (3) (B) and (C) only

Explanation: Depth of field is controlled by three factors:
-> Focal length of lens: the wider the focal length of the lens the more depth of field.
-> Aperture setting (f/stop): the smaller the aperture the more depth of field.
-> Distance from the subject: more distance between the camera and the subject the more depth of field.

5. Which of the following is the characteristic of genuine signatures having good line quality?

  1. Flying starts and tapering endings
  2. Penlifts at Unnatural places
  3. Abrupt change in the direction of strokes
  4. Concealed retouching

Answer: (1) Flying starts and tapering endings

-> Evidence of fluency is frequently found in the tapering of ending or commencement and terminal strokes also referred to as flying starts and flying finishes.
-> Other evidence: speed, carelessness, and inattention to details, as well as delicate, inconspicuous movements. consistently repeated.

6. Math List I with List II

List-I (Drug Schedule)List-II (Drug Name)
(A) Schedule I(I) Morphine
(B) Schedule II(II) Diazepam
(C) Schedule III(III) Heroine
(D) Schedule IV(IV) Anabolic steroids

Choose the correct answer from the options:


Answer: (2) (III), (I), (IV), (II)

Explanation: Check various drug schedules list.

7. Section 320 of the IPC designates several types of hurts (injuries) as grievous

(A) Emasculation
(B) Fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth
(C) Removal of head hair
(D) Permanent disfiguration of the head or face
(E) Causing bodily pain to a person

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (A), (B) and (D) only
  2. (A) and (B) only
  3. (A), (D) and (E) only
  4. (A), (C) and (E) only

Answer: (1) (A), (B) and (D) only

Explanations: Grievous hurt is defined by eight clauses:
-> (1) Emasculation: removal of male private parts.
-> (2) Permanent privation of the signs of either eye: (not Black eye/Racoon eye).
-> (3) Permanent privation of the hearing of either ear.
-> (4) Permanent privation of any member of joints of the body.
-> (5) Permanent or destruction of joints (or any member parts of the body) ability to work.
-> (6) Permanent disfiguration of face or head.
-> (7) Fracture or dislocation of bone or tooth.
-> (8) Any hurt that threat to life, serve body pain that lasts for 20 days, or is not able to perform daily work.
Source: Forensic Medicine by Anil Aggrawal

8. Given below are two statements: one is labeled as Assertion A and the other is labeled as Reason R.

Assertion (A): In1970s the most popular depressants were barbiturates.
Reason (R): They are the family of drugs that have been prescribed to relieve anxiety, nervousness and restlessness. 

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options.

  1. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  2. Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A).
  3. (A) is correct but (R) is not correct.
  4. (A) is not correct but (R) is correct.

Answer: (1) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Explanation: No explanation is needed for this question.

9. The cylinder that serves as the backing for the paper and absorbs the blow from the typeface is known as

  1. Platen
  2. Drum
  3. Escapement
  4. Type-wheel

Answer: (1) Platen

-> Escapement: The spacing along the line of typewriting, that is, the basic letterspacing; also termed as pitch.
-> Type wheel: In modern use, a series of characters are mounted on flexible arms around a circular core. The wheel rotates to position each type, which is printed by a plunger striking against the back of the typeface forcing it against the ribbon and paper.

10. Chiral stationary phase in Gas Chromatography is mainly used for the separation of which of the following compounds?

  1. Structural isomers
  2. Conformational isomers
  3. Enantiomers
  4. Geometric isomers

Answer: (3) Enantiomers

-> The separation of enantiomers by gas chromatography (GC) on a chiral stationary phase (CSP) was discovered by Gil-Av et al. at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Isreal, in 1966.
-> There are three principal CSPs by the mode of sector-selection interactions.
(i) Separation of enantiomers on chiral amino acids derivatives via hydrogen bonding.
(ii) Separation of enantiomers on chiral metal coordination compounds via complexation.
(iii) Separation of enantiomers on cyclodextrin derivatives via (inter alia) inclusion.
Reference: Separation of enantiomers by gas chromatography

11. Which of the following has the least intensity in the Raman spectra of Carbon tetrachloride?

  1. Stokes scattering
  2. Tyndall scattering
  3. Anti-strokes scattering
  4. Rayleigh scattering

Answer: (3) Anti-strokes scattering

Explanation: Increasing order of scattering intensity: Anti-stokes Raman scattering< stokes Raman scattering< Rayleigh scattering< Tyndall scattering.

-> Tyndall scattering is an elastic scattering that occurs from particles roughly the same size as the wavelength of radiation. It is more intense than Rayleigh due to its bigger particle size.
-> Rayleigh Scattering is an elastic scattering of light by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. It is a much more probable event than either two Raman (inelastic scattering).
-> Raman Scattering is inelastic scattering which means that the kinetic energy of the incident photon is increased (Stokes Raman scattering) or reduced (anti-stokes Raman scattering) during the interaction. Both have much weaker intensity than Rayleigh.
-> Anti-Stokes Raman spectra are rarely collected in comparison with Stokes Raman spectra because the intensity of anti-stokes scattering depends on the population of the first excited vibration state.

Note: Light scattered by particles of the same wavelength as of incident is called elastic scatterings such as Tyndall and Rayleigh.
Reference: Pharmaceutical Applications of Raman Spectroscopy [Book]

12. Which of the following contain scopolamine?

  1. Chrysanthemum cineraria folium
  2. Atropa Belladonna
  3. Taxus brevifolia
  4. Senecio Vernalis

Answer: (2) Atropa Belladonna

-> Scopolamine (Hyoscine) is a tropane alkaloid that is present in plants:
(i) Datura stramonium
(ii) Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
(iii) Hyoscyamus niger (henbane)
(iv) Mandragora officinarum (mandrake).
-> Other tropane alkaloids (active principles) other than Hyoscine in these plants are:
(i) Hyoscyamine
(ii) Atropine

-> Chrysanthemum cineraria folium: for extraction of Permethrin (insecticide)
-> Taxus Brevifolia (Pacific yew): taxines (contains at least 11 poisonous alkaloids)
-> Senecio Vernalis: contains poisonous pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

13. Which of the following are behavioural biometrics? (More than one correct answer)

  1. Lip motion
  2. Gait
  3. Thermogram
  4. Voice

Answer: (1) Lip motion (2) Gait & (4) Voice

-> Behavioural biometric is based on uniquely identifying and measurable patterns in human activities. Examples: signature, handwriting, gait pattern, voice.
-> Physical biometrics based on physiological features of the human body that can serve as identification markers. Example face shape, fingerprint, DNA, iris, retina, veins distribution of palms, etc.

14. Which of the following is not used as the security feature in genuine printed documents?

  1. UV fluorescent feature
  2. Watermark
  3. Retro-reflective feature
  4. Dandy roll

Answer: (4) Dandy roll

Explanation: Common features of security documents are:
-> Watermarks,
-> Fluorescent fibers and planchettes,
-> Guilloche pattern (decorative dials with very precise and repetitive patterns)
-> Fluorescent and magnetic inks
-> Optically variable inks
-> Rainbow printing (protect security documents against color separation, common in passports)
-> Microprinting
-> Latent images
-> Retro-reflective pattern
-> Machine-readable security

-> Dandy roll is a process of making watermarks by impressing a water-coated metal stamp onto the paper during manufacturing.

15. Which of the followings are organochloro insecticides?

(A) Allethrin
(B) Lindane
(C) Paraquat
(D) Aldrin

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (A) and (D) only
  2. (B) and (C) only
  3. (B) and (D) only
  4. (A) and (C) only

Answer: (3) (B) and (D) only

Explanation: The chlorinated hydrocarbons (organochlorine) can be divided into four categories:
(i) DDT and analogues: DDT and methoxychlor.
(ii) Benzene hexachloride: Gamma hexachlorobenzene (Lindane).
(iii) Cyclodienes and related compounds: Endrin, aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, dieldrin, endosulfan, hepatachlor, isobenan, and mirex.
(iv) Toxaphene and related compounds

-> Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids: Pyrethrins are extracted from Crysanthemum cinerariaefolium plant. Pyrethroids are synthetic analogues.
-> Common examples are: d-allethrin, pyrethrum, allethrin, deltamethrin, decamethrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate.

-> Paraquat dichloride (commonly refered as Paraquat): is used as herbicide under trade name ‘Gramoxone’ and ‘Weedol’.
Reference: Review of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by Gautam Biswas.

16. The following are examples of double immune-diffusion assays based on precipitation reactions:

(A) Oucheterlony assay
(B) Radial immune-diffusion assay
(C) Oudin assay
(D) Ring assay
(E) Oakley-Fulthorpe assay

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (A), (B) and (D) only
  2. (A), (D) and (E) only
  3. (A), (B) and (C) only
  4. (A), (C) and (E) only

Answer: (2) (A), (D) and (E) only

-> Single Diffusion Assay in one Dimension: Oudin Method
-> Single Diffusion in two Dimensions: Mancini method, Radial Immunodiffusion (RID).
-> Ring Assay: also called ring test. In the positive reaction, a white precipitate between the two layers.
-> Double Diffusion in one dimension: Oakley-Fulthorpe method.
-> Ouchterlong Assay: a line of precipitate will form between each antigen and antibody well.

17. Match List I with List II

List I (Contributor)List II (Contributions)
(A) Francis Galton(I) First to identify the presence and location of volar pads on the hands and feet
(B) Arthur Kollam(II) First book on fingerprint
(C) Wiliam Herschel(III) First person to study the persistence of friction ridge skin
(D) J.C.A. Mayer(IV) First to write the friction ridge skin is unique

Choose the correct answer from the options:


Answer: (2) (II), (I), (III), (IV)

-> J.C.A. Mayer (1788) is the first to write that friction ridge skin is unique in Anatomical copper plates with Appropriate Explanations.
-> Sir Francis Galton (1892) Published Finger Prints establishing the individuality and permanence of fingerprints.
-> Arthur Kollam (1883) is the first to identify the presence and locations of the volar pads on the hands and feet.
-> Sir William J. Herschel’s (1858) spontaneous printing of a man’s hand as proof of identity is the first to use friction ridge skin as a signature of Europeans.

18. Who among these is the first person to develop scientific method for the identification of an individual?

  1. Alphonse Bertillon
  2. Alec Jeffrey
  3. William Herschel
  4. Gregor Mandel

Answer: (1) Alphonse Bertillon

Explanation: Alphonse Bertillon in 1883, devised the first scientific method of criminal identification called anthropometry.

19. The main factor attributing to the degree of scorching is

(A) Weight of propellant
(B) Type of weapon
(C) Pressure produced
(D) Shape and size of bullet

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (A) and (C) only
  2. (A) and (B) only
  3. (B) and (C) only
  4. (C) and (D) only

Answer: (1) (A) and (C) only

Explanation: Common Factors contributing to the degree of scorching are:
-> Surface of the target
-> Weight of the powder charge
-> Pressure
-> Type of propellant
Reference: Journal of the Indian Academy of Forensic Sciences, Volume 8

20. The trash or defect marks which are repeated several times, on the same page of laser printed documents, in a consistently positioned vertical lines are known as

  1. Glass platen marks
  2. Residual toner impressions
  3. Drum defect marks
  4. Roller defect marks

Answer: (3) Drum defect marks

-> Glass platen defects mark: due to scratches and wear to glass platen when scanning is performed before printing the document. All pages have the same defect at the same position.
-> Roller defects marks: produce the same defects at intervals.
-> Drum defects mark: same distance from the margins depending on the paper feed and do not appear on all papers because high-speed copiers have large drums that can hold 3 images at a time. So, the defect is seen once on every third copy.

21. Which of the following techniques is used frequently to analyse samples suspected of containing liquid fire accelerants?

  1. Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)
  2. X-ray spectrometry
  3. Ultra-violet spectroscopy
  4. Atomic absorption spectroscopy

Answer: (1) Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)

Explanation: GC-MS is the most versatile analytical instrument in forensics:
-> It can be used to analyze volatile compose that doesn’t decompose under 300°C to 500°C and have a molecular weight below 1000 amu.
-> Common applications are fire debris, drugs, explosives, and toxins.

22. The probability of two individuals having same fingerprint has been mathematically calculated by Victor Balthazard as:

  1. 1 x 10 to the 30th power
  2. 1 x 10 to the 60th power
  3. 1 x 10 to the 90th power
  4. 1 x 10 to the 100th power

Answer: (2) 1 x 10 to the 60th power

Explanation: Contribution of Victor Balthazard:
-> In 1911, he stated that fingerprints were unique and that there is approx. one chance in 1060 (1 x 10 to the 60th power).
-> In 1910, he (along with Marcelle Lambert), wrote the first comprehensive book on hair analysis entitled “The Hair of Man and Animals” (translated).
Reference: Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques

23. Following are the defects found in the type impressions:

(A) Slippage of the paper so that successive lines are not parallel
(B) Actual breaks in the letter impressions or characters
(C) Skipping of a space after certain letters
(D) Stacking of letters on the right side

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (A), (B) and (D) only
  2. (B), (C) and (D) only
  3. (A), (C) and (D) only
  4. (A), (B) and (C) only

Answer: (3) (A), (C) and (D) only

Explanation: Following are the typed impression defects in typewriters:
(i) A consistently slight variation from the designed spacing between letters or lines.
(ii) Skipping of space after certain letters.
(iii) Improper working of the ribbon.
(iv) Slippage of the paper so that successive lines are not parallel.
(v) Irregular left margins.
(vi) Stacking of letters on the right.
Reference: Scientific Examination of Questioned Documents, Revised Edition By Ordway Hilton.

24. Match List I with List II

List-I (Ionization techniques of Mass Spectrometry)List-II (Incident beam)
(A) MALDI(I) High energy beam of ions
(B) FAB(II) Ionized reagent gas
(C) SIMS(III) High-intensity photons
(D) CI(IV) Neutral atoms

Choose the correct answer from the options:


Answer: (1) (III), (IV), (I), (II)

Explanation: There are two types of ionization techniques: electron and chemical ionization.

(I) Chemical Ionization (CI): the sample molecule is combined with ionized reagent gas resulting in an ionized sample that is further analyzed using mass spectrometry.
-> Common ionizing gas reagents: methane, ammonia, isobutane, and methanol.
-> Chemical ionization in the open air is also known as Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)

(II) Deposition (electron ionization) techniques: Deposition ionization techniques mean the sample needed to be dissolved or dispersed in a matrix before the application to the beam.
-> Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) uses a high-energy beam of ions (1-10keV) usually of Ar+ or Cs+.
-> Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) uses a beam of neutral atoms of Ar or Xe.
-> Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) uses a beam of high-energy photons (nitrogen laser at 337nm or IR laser).

Reference: Introduction to Spectroscopy By Donald L. Pavia,

25. Match List I with List II

List I (Mass Analyzer)List II (Principle of analysis)
(A) Double focusing(I) Equal kinetic energy ions enter drift tube
(B) Time-of-flight(II) Deflection of ions in magnetic field
(C) Quadrupole(III) Ion motion in DC and radio-frequency fields
(D) Magnetic sector(IV) Electrostatic focusing followed by magnetic field deflection

Choose the correct answer from the options:


Answer: (4) (IV), (I), (III), (II)

Explanation: Check the list of different types of Mass analyzers [Table]

Jump to Solved Part 2 (26 to 50 questions of 2022 October) through Index Page of Previous Year UGC NTA NET/ JRF Forensic Science Question Paper.

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